Wednesday, 13 August 2014

Assistive technology

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(Redirected from Advantageous Technology)
"Adaptive technology" redirects here.
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Assistive technology is an awning appellation that includes assistive, adaptive, and antidotal accessories for humans with disabilities and aswell includes the action acclimated in selecting, locating, and application them. Advantageous technology promotes greater ability by enabling humans to achieve tasks that they were aforetime clumsy to accomplish, or had abundant adversity accomplishing, by accouterment enhancements to, or alteration methods of interacting with, the technology bare to achieve such tasks.
Contents [hide]
1 Advantageous technology and adaptive technology
2 Mobility crime and wheelchairs
3 Mobility crime and walkers
4 Personal emergency acknowledgment systems
5 Accessibility software
6 Advantageous technology for beheld impairment
7 Augmentative and another communication
8 Advantageous technology for cognition
9 Prosthesis
10 Advantageous technology in sport
11 Computer accessibility
12 Home automation
13 See also
14 References
Assistive technology and adaptive technology[edit]
The appellation adaptive technology is generally acclimated as the analogue for advantageous technology, however, they are altered terms. Advantageous technology refers to "any item, section of equipment, or artefact system, whether acquired commercially, modified, or customized, that is acclimated to increase, maintain, or advance anatomic capabilities of individuals with disabilities",[citation needed] while adaptive technology covers items that are accurately advised for bodies with disabilities and would hardly be acclimated by non-disabled persons. In added words, "assistive technology is any article or arrangement that increases or maintains the capabilities of humans with disabilities," while adaptive technology is "any article or arrangement that is accurately advised for the purpose of accretion or advancement the capabilities of humans with disabilities."[1] Consequently, adaptive technology is a subset of advantageous technology. Adaptive technology generally refers accurately to cyberbanking and advice technology access.[2]

Mobility impairment and wheelchairs

Main article: Wheelchair

A archetypal avant-garde array powered chair.
Wheelchairs are accessories that can be manually propelled or electrically propelled and that cover a basement arrangement and are advised to be a acting for the accustomed advancement that a lot of humans enjoy. Wheelchairs and added advancement accessories acquiesce humans to accomplish advancement accompanying activities of circadian active which cover feeding, toileting, bathrobe admonishment and bathing. The accessories comes in a amount of variations area they can be propelled either by duke or by motors area the addressee uses electrical controls to administer motors and basement ascendancy actuators through a joystick or added ascribe devices. Generally there are handles abaft the bench for anyone abroad to do the blame or ascribe accessories for caregivers. Wheelchairs are acclimated by humans for whom walking is difficult or absurd due to illness, injury, or disability. Humans with both sitting and walking affliction generally charge to use a wheelchair or walker.

Mobility impairment and walkers

Main article: Walker
A ambler or walking anatomy or Rollator is a apparatus for disabled humans who charge added abutment to advance antithesis or adherence while walking. It consists of a anatomy that is about waist high, about twelve inches abysmal and hardly added than the user. Walkers are aswell accessible in added sizes, such as for children, or for abundant people. Modern walkers are height-adjustable. The foreground two legs of the ambler may or may not accept auto absorbed depending on the backbone and abilities of the being application it. It is aswell accepted to see alembic auto or glides on the aback legs of a ambler with auto on the front.[3]

Personal emergency response systems

Main article: Telecare

This aborigine with a chiral ability affliction is authoritative choices on a touchscreen with a arch dauber.
Personal emergency acknowledgment systems (PERS), or Telecare (UK term), are a accurate array of advantageous technology that use cyberbanking sensors affiliated to an anxiety arrangement to advice caregivers administer accident and advice accessible humans break absolute at home longer. An archetype would be the systems getting put in abode for chief humans such as abatement detectors, thermometers (for hypothermia risk), calamity and aphotic gas sensors (for humans with balmy dementia). Notably, these alerts can be customized to the accurate person's risks. When the active is triggered, a bulletin is beatific to a caregiver or acquaintance centermost who can acknowledge appropriately.

Accessibility software

Main article: Computer accessibility
In human–computer interaction, computer accessibility (also accepted as attainable computing) refers to the accessibility of a computer arrangement to all people, behindhand of affliction or severity of impairment, examples cover web accessibility guidelines.[4] Another admission is for the user to present a badge to the computer terminal, such as a acute card, that has agreement advice to acclimatize the computer speed, argument size, etc. to their accurate needs. This is advantageous area users wish to admission accessible computer based terminals in Libraries, ATM, Advice kiosks etc. The abstraction is amid by the CEN EN 1332-4 Identification Agenda Systems - Man-Machine Interface.[5] This development of this accepted has been accurate in Europe by SNAPI and has been auspiciously congenital into the Lasseo specifications, but with bound success due to the abridgement of absorption from accessible computer terminal suppliers.

Assistive technology for visual impairment

Main article: Blindness В§ Management
Many humans with austere beheld impairments reside independently, application a advanced ambit of accoutrement and techniques. Examples of advantageous technology for visually crime cover the Canadian bill concrete feature, which a arrangement of aloft dots in one corner, based on Braille beef but not accepted Braille.[6] For accepted computer use admission technology such as awning readers, awning magnifiers and refreshable Braille displays has been broadly taken up forth with standalone account aids that ACCOMMODATE A scanner, optical appearance acceptance (OCR) software, and accent software in a individual machine. These action calm after a abstracted PC.[7]

Augmentative and alternative communication

Main article: Augmentative and another communication

An AAC user uses amount coding on an eye boring advice board
Augmentative and another advice (AAC) is an awning appellation that encompasses methods of advice for those with impairments or restrictions on the assembly or apperception of announced or accounting language.[8] AAC systems are acutely assorted and depend on the capabilities of the user. They may be as basal as pictures on a lath that the are acclimated to appeal food, drink, or added care; or they can be avant-garde accent breeding devices, based on accent synthesis, that are able of autumn hundreds of phrases and words.[9]

Assistive technology for cognition

Main article: Cerebral orthotics
Assistive technology for acknowledgment (ATC)[10] is the use of technology (usually top tech) to augment and advantageous cerebral processes such as attention, memory, self-regulation, navigation, affect acceptance and management, planning, and sequencing activity. Systematic reviews of the acreage accept begin that the amount of ATC are growing rapidly, but accept focused on anamnesis and planning, that there is arising affirmation for efficacy, that a lot of ambit exists to advance new ATC.[11] Examples of ATC include: NeuroPage which prompts users about meetings,[12] Wakamaru, which provides accompaniment and reminds users to yield anesthetic and calls for advice if something is wrong, and blast Reassurance systems.[13]


Main article: Prosthesis
A prosthesis, prosthetic, or prosthetic limb is a accessory that replaces a missing physique part. It is allotment of the acreage of biomechatronics, the science of application automated accessories with animal muscle, skeleton, and afraid systems to abetment or enhance motor ascendancy absent by trauma, disease, or defect. Prostheses are about acclimated to alter locations absent by abrasion (traumatic) or missing from bearing (congenital) or to supplement abnormal physique parts. Inside the body, bogus affection valves are in accepted use with bogus hearts and lungs seeing beneath accepted use but beneath alive technology development. Other medical accessories and aids that can be advised prosthetics cover audition aids, bogus eyes, palatal obturator, belly bands, and dentures.
Prostheses are accurately not orthoses, although accustomed assertive affairs a prosthesis ability end up assuming some or all of the aforementioned abettor allowances as an orthosis. Prostheses are technically the complete accomplished item. For instance, a C-Leg knee abandoned is not a prosthesis, but alone a prosthetic component. The complete prosthesis would abide of the adapter arrangement to the balance limb — usually a "socket", and all the adapter accouterments apparatus all the way down to and including the terminal device. Keep this in apperception as classification is generally interchanged.
The agreement "prosthetic" and "orthotic" are adjectives acclimated to call accessories such as a prosthetic knee. The agreement "prosthetics" and "orthotics" are acclimated to call the corresponding affiliated bloom fields. The accessories themselves are appropriately referred to as "prostheses" and "orthoses" in the plural and "prosthesis" and "orthosis" in the singular.

Assistive technology in sport

Assistive technology in action is an breadth of technology architecture that is growing. Advantageous technology is the arrangement of new accessories created to accredit sports enthusiasts who accept disabilities to play. Advantageous technology may be acclimated in adaptive sports, area an absolute action is adapted to accredit players with a affliction to participate; or, advantageous technology may be acclimated to ad-lib absolutely new sports with athletes with disabilities alone in mind.
An accretion amount of humans with disabilities are ACCOMMODATING IN sports, arch to the development of new advantageous technology.[14] Advantageous technology accessories can be simple, or "low-tech", or they may use awful avant-garde technology, with some even application computers. Advantageous technology for sports may aswell be simple, or advanced.[15] Accordingly, advantageous technology can be begin in sports alignment from bounded association amusement to the aristocratic Paralympic Games. More circuitous advantageous technology accessories accept been developed over time, and as a result, sports for humans with disabilities "have afflicted from getting a analytic ameliorative apparatus to an more competition-oriented activity".[16]

Computer accessibility

Main article: Computer accessibility

A sip-and-puff accessory which allows a being with abundant affliction to accomplish selections and cross computerized interfaces by authoritative inhalations and exhalations.
One of the better problems that affect humans with disabilities is ache with prostheses.[17] An agreement performed in Massachusetts activated 20 humans with assorted sensors absorbed to their arms.[17] The capacity approved altered arm exercises, and the sensors recorded their movements. All of the abstracts helped engineers advance new engineering concepts for prosthetics.[17]
Assistive technology may attack to advance the ergonomics of the accessories themselves such as Dvorak and added another keyboard layouts, which action added ergonomic layouts of the keys.[18][19]
Assistive technology accessories accept been created to accredit humans with disabilities to use avant-garde blow awning adaptable computers such as the iPad, iPhone and iPod touch. The Pererro is a bung and play adapter for iOS accessories which uses the congenital in Apple VoiceOver affection in aggregate with a basal switch. This brings blow awning technology to those who were ahead clumsy to use it.

Home automation

The anatomy of home automation alleged advantageous domotics focuses on authoritative it accessible for aged and disabled humans to reside independently. Home automation is acceptable a applicable advantage for the aged and disabled who would adopt to break in their own homes rather than move to a healthcare facility. This acreage uses abundant of the aforementioned technology and accessories as home automation for security, entertainment, and activity attention but tailors it appear aged and disabled users.